Cogitating on Cognitive Presence

Our team study group continues to meet weekly to explore the Community of Inquiry framework.



As mentioned last week, we have all read Randy Garrison’s 2011 Second Edition of E-Learning in the Twenty-First Century.  Garrison asserts in his book that the framework has been researched enough to be called a theoretical framework.  We are still pushing back a bit on that, but reviewing the literature is interesting.   We have a collective Zotero library on CoI with some 17 articles to date (most contributed by our graduate fellow, Laura – much thanks!).

Our conversation yesterday focused my thinking around the particulars of the relationship between Cognitive Presence and the Practical Inquiry Model, which Garrison explores in Chapter 5.  Garrison noted that practical inquiry dates back to Dewey’s writings on reflective thinking, and that practical inquiry is closely aligned with critical thinking – a desired outcome of any educational process.

practical inquiry model

Practical Inquiry Model (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2001)

As we talked, I was finding myself somewhat befuddled by the discourse, so I said let me draw it out on the board.  I ended up with the familiar Venn diagram, but with the four aspects of practical inquiry – trigger event, exploration, integration, and resolution – residing within Cognitive Presence.  Others then began to morph the drawing, with some suggesting a fluid animated vision or shifts of the circles for gears…with social presence and teaching presence as drivers for cognitive presence.

CoI and PIM combined

Searching around my laptop as the conversation continued, I found an article of interest published by Karen Swan, Randy Garrison, and Jennifer Richardson in 2009 – “A Constructivist Approach to Online Learning: The Community of Inquiry Framework.”  In this article, Swan and team lay out a table with the three presences, categories within each, and indicators.

CoI Categories

CoI categories and indicators; (Garrison & Anderson, 2003) – from Swan et al (2009)

Swan noted that much of the literature to date had focused on the role played by each presence rather than a holistic look at the interplay of all three together.  She noted that not only does the influences shift between them, but they also shift over time within a course and beyond a course.  The “learning” might kick in two to three courses later as continued integration and resolution occur.  This idea fit with our discussion.  In an online course, a blog post and resulting commentary for instance could be evidence of social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence all interacting together.

We are going to continue to tease this out in our discussion next week, with everyone reading the Swan article.  After the discussion yesterday, I found another article from the good people in the SUNY Learning Network.  In “Learning Presence: Additional Research on a new conceptual element within the Community of Inquiry framework“, Peter Shea and eight colleagues suggest that “learning presence” should be incorporated into the existing framework, adding the element of learner self-regulation to the mix.

Shea revised CoI

Shea et al Revised Community of Inquiry model including “Learning Presence”

Laura noted that she had seen more recent articles that pushed back on this concept…so we have some additional research to do for next week!

Speaking of next week, I have signed up for another MOOC on Creativity, Innovation and Change.  Looks promising…and I like that they have three levels of involvement – Tourist, Explorers and Adventurers.  I plan to achieve at least Explorer…and may rise to Adventurer! I understand that more than 100,000 have signed up…and the map of participants is exciting!

Stay tuned for more on that!  Any thoughts on this Community of Inquiry reflection are welcome!


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Does Research Inform Teaching?

According to a new infographic shared by Paul Corrigan of Southeastern University, the answer is NO.

In “Grow the 8%“, Paul cites research that suggests that only a quarter of higher education professors use something other than lecture as their primary method of instruction, and only 8 percent of faculty take into account the research on teaching and learning.  The surveys by Fink and Bok are somewhat dated, so I wonder in this post-Web 2.0 world if these figures are still as accurate?

In our own work with faculty, we surveyed faculty that had completed a one-year institute with us on online teaching and learning.  57% self-reported that they had reviewed research studies on online teaching and learning.  This could suggest that once faculty members are sensitized to the value of research, a more significant percentage than 8% continue to use it.

Paul’s bottom line suggestion is that faculty members should read at least one good book on teaching and learning each year, and he lists some good books.  As I have frequently reviewed books in this blog, I would tend to agree with his recommendation!

I would be interested in your thoughts.  Do you agree with Paul’s findings?



{Graphic: Teaching & Learning in Higher Ed}


Rethinking Pedagogy

beethamIn my last post, I discussed how I was rethinking some fundamentals based on our White Paper.  “Rethinking” must be in vogue.  Yesterday, I received my copy of a new edition of a book edited by Helen Beetham and Rhona Sharpe – Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing for 21st Century Learning (Routledge, 2013).

I am only a couple of chapters in so far, but I am finding it interesting.  First, all of the authors are either UK or Australian, giving a perspective that is not so USA-centric.  With England’s Open University and Australia’s unique distance program for the Outback, this perspective is worth giving a listen.  When I first started to teach online eighteen years ago, one of my mentors was Dr. Lindsay Barker, an educator from Australia.  And Lindsay was decidedly focused on pedagogy…not technology…though he was one of the first to help conceptualize using a brand new product – Lotus Notes – as a VLE.

I like the tone of this book.  The authors suggest that the theoretical concepts remain valid, but that pedagogy (which they broaden beyond youth to include adult learning) is tied to technologies of learning, and as these technologies evolve, the pedagogy should as well.  One comment that caught my eye in the Foreword was:

“…At the time of the first edition [2007], learning technologists were insisting that there was more to online learning than lectures on the web, and we should be looking to the active forms of learning that could be offered.  Since then, we have had the explosion of social media to connect learners to each other, there are more opportunities for user-generated content, and yet now there are even more lectures on the web…”

How true is that!?!?!

In rethinking pedagogy, the authors have attempted to use the term in the classic sense of guidance-to-learn.  They note that recent researchers have suggested that “learning” is superior to “teaching” but they make no apologies.  They note that there has always been content – whether that was the local library or the internet, but that most learning opportunities are enhanced when the learning is guided.  “Pedagogy is about guided learning, rather than leaving you to find your own way.”  So the teacher is front and center in this book.

Chapter 2 by Helen Beetham focuses on active learning in technology-rich contexts.  She noted that challenges facing online educators include recognizing the variance in learners and adapting to this variance rather than teaching to one level.  She suggests five types of learning activities appropriate for digital technologies:

  • Discovering
  • Developing and Sharing Ideas
  • Solving Problems, Developing Techniques
  • Collecting, Gathering, Recording, Editing
  • Working with Others

bloomspyramidShe includes a useful appendix that provides a taxonomy of digital literacy tied to Bloom’s Taxonomy.  For each level of the taxonomy, she provided examples of learning tasks with a digital literacy component, and relevant tools, applications, or services.

For instance, under Remembering, she suggested labeling diagrams, locating resources on the web and tagging them, and taking quizzes.  Tools included online whiteboards, electronic polling, and Google.

Moving up to Analyzing, she suggested activities where students identify patterns, using visualization apps or geotagging.  She also suggested the use of blogs for public debate around issues with links to evidence, as well as the use of mind-mapping software.

At the level of Creating, she suggested student generation of research projects, design of apps, or the creation of new communities of practice, using social media and web design software.  She noted that some have decried the “cut and paste mentality” of students, but she sees real value in guided tasks of aggregation, using techniques such as digital storytelling to have students make sense of their collections.  My colleague Bud Deihl would love that!

As I said, I am only two chapters in … so I have another fifteen to go.  But I am enjoying this book.  Be interested to hear from any others reading it.

[Graphics: Routledge, Samantha Penney}


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Roundtable Discussion on Assessment

Last week in GRAD-602, Jeff Nugent led an exploration on assessment.  We noted that a distinction can be made between learning for mastery versus the traditional approach that typically leads to sorting and sifting students.  This provided a segway to the evening’s focus on formative and summative assessment.

Assessment WordleIn class, we brainstormed ways in which we have experienced assessment within our disciplines, and tests, quizzes, papers and performance observations were the traditional practices that came to the surface. These forms of assessment, while very important, are often the only means used in teaching for demonstrating what students are learning. They are audits of learning.  What is often overlooked, or given less consideration, are assessment techniques that are aimed at improving student performance and understanding about “how” they are learning. This latter type of assessment, sometimes called formative, provides learners with important feedback about how they are learning and how they can improve what they are doing. This kind of assessment is not an audit of learning, like a test or quiz, but rather an approach to assessment that values learning as an iterative process of growth through loops of practice, performance, and feedback. As Jeanette noted, formative assessment allows students to fail forward.

To illustrate these two notions, Jeff modeled a traditional approach to learning with a quick lesson on “the montilization of Traxoline.”  No talking was allowed, instruction was delivered in a jargon-heavy manner, and then rote memorization was assessed without determining understanding.

The alternate model involved a classic physical science exploration of mass, weight, volume, and displacement with the floating ice cube problem.  A problem was explained, understanding was diagnosed, opportunity was provided for discussion, and prior knowledge was surfaced and made visible using Poll Everywhere.  This process would allow an instructor the opportunity to adjust her or his instruction to ensure mastery.

Our classes only last 100 minutes, and so we (as always) were left with feelings that we did not discuss all that we desired.  So, we sat down around my office table this morning to record another podcast.  In this session, Jeff, David McLeod, and I discuss aspects of power that arise from assessments, the problem with assessing higher order thinking with multiple-choice tests, and dip our toes into the idea of tests as “objective” measures.


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Impact of Prior Knowledge on Teaching

In our GRAD 602 class last week, we spent some time surfacing our students’ beliefs about learning.  As Laura noted in her blog, we “dabbled in the classic ‘See one, do one, teach one.’” From there, we then discussed some of the work of John Bransford on How People Learn, as well as the opening of John Medina‘s presentation on Brain Rules.  Lastly, we showed a section of the documentary A Private Universe, which asked recent Harvard graduates to explain the reason for the seasons.  Twenty-one out of twenty-three incorrectly stated (with conviction) that the reason for the seasons was due to the earth being closer or further from the sun, rather than the tilt of the axis and direct versus indirect sunlight.  The documentary pointed out the strong impact of prior knowledge driven by exaggerated pictures in elementary school textbooks of the earth revolving around the sun in an ellipse rather than a circular orbit.

Orbit Drawing

It was obvious as time ran out that we had made our students uncomfortable.  We hope to move this Thursday into some of the reasons for that discomfort, but it gave us a starting point for this week’s podcast:

{Graphic from ProProfs Flashcards}


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A Conversation on Risk Taking by New Faculty

Flickr CC/NC/SA

It’s Spring Break here at VCU, so no GRAD-602 class this week.  However, as Jeff Nugent, David McLeod and I are all here this week…and since the Open VA Conference was cancelled due to a March snow storm, we decided to have another podcast conversation.

Last week in our class, our students discussed a case study around a new faculty and his integration of technology into teaching.  During the class and afterwards in the blogs, a number of students noted that they would not take “such a risky behavior” as trying new ways of teaching in their new job. For instance, one student said, “After reading this case, I was like “Wow, this dude is pretty ballsy!”  I would be scared to do anything this big my first year whether it’s a tenured positions or not.”  In the comments, another said that having students blog was “a radical move”.  We heard similar points in class.

That got Jeff, David and I thinking, and this conversation ensued…

Thoughts?  Reactions?

{Image Credit: kyz}

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A Conversation on Learner Autonomy and Compliance

Sat down with Jeff Nugent and David McLeod, my co-teachers for GRAD-602, to discuss the tension between learner autonomy and learner compliance.  This is planned to be the first in a series of podcasts we three will do for this course.  Good discussion around power, roles, self-directedness, and learning-centered students.

Note: The Skeptical Goat made an appearance….

Spring 2013 GRAD-602 Underway

Again this spring, Jeff Nugent, David McLeod and I will be co-teaching GRAD-602 – Teaching, Learning and Technology.  For the first time, we have chosen to run the course in the open rather than using the traditional Blackboard LMS.  Our course website is here.  We have 26 graduate students with us for this learning journey, as well as a former student who wishes to remain engaged, and all will be blogging throughout the course.  You can engage their commentary here (and are invited to do so!).

NOTE: If any of your teaching graduates would be interested in weekly blogging along side our students, let me know so that I can add their blog to our Netvibes portal.

To gage perceptions about educational technology at the start of class, we conducted a pre-course survey.  The responses from 92% that responded were as follows:

Note that challenging students to reconsider their values had mixed results.

Like the values question above, mixed reviews on teaching about higher ideals or issues.

A quarter of the class thought using digital technology in meaningful ways to support learning was “less important”.

A mix of agreement and disagreement over the extent to which there is a crisis of relevance in higher education.

Asked about other roles not mentioned, comments included creating lifelong learners, instilling love of knowledge, and developing critical thinkers.  One metaphor that was interesting was that teaching was similar to an underground newspaper.

The responses were for the most part pretty predictable for a class of masters and doctorate students.  The two items that students found least important were in thinking about their role as teacher, the degree to which they should challenge students to reconsider their values or teach about higher ideals.  “Values” is a value laden word…so it would be interesting to dig deeper and see what some meant by this.  Are disciplines so fact-based that there is little room for interpretation?  Do questions about values and ideals fit with questions of relevance?

I hope some of our students feel free to comment on this blog…and as the semester unfolds, I suspect questions similar to these will surface again.  The first class was a delight – with excellent discussion around the room.  I look forward to the semester unfolding!

{Survey co-developed with Jeff Nugent and David McLeod}




Starting the New Year Open

Happy New Year, everyone.  Welcome to 2013!  I have two “open” new years resolutions.

We have been talking about how the web has become increasingly open, social and participatory for the past four years…yet with the arrival of the MOOC bandwagon last year, “open” took on new significance.  So, as 2013 gets rolling, I and my CTE colleagues are exploring how “open” might change our teaching.

Again this spring, my colleagues Jeff Nugent, David McLeod, and myself will be facilitating a course in our Preparing Future Faculty program called “GRAD-602: Teaching, Learning and Technology.”  We should have 24 Ph.D candidates or post-docs working on their PFF certification.  As in previous years, we will take our students on an exploration of the social web and the integration of digital technology into teaching at the college level.  Our students will document their journey by blogging on the open web.  In past years, we have used the campus LMS – Blackboard – with links to their blogs in Netvibes.  This year as our first new practice (and resolution), we are moving our LMS to WordPress, so that we can invite the world to join in our weekly conversations.

So check out our website at – and if you or your grad students would like to blog with us and be added to our Netvibes page, let me know!

Two of my students from last summer completed MOOCs from Coursera over the fall, and their enthusiasm has prompted me to try one for myself.  So, as a second new years resolution in the world of open, I have enrolled in Coursera’s E-Learning and Digital Cultures class, to be taught by Jeremy Know, Sian Bayne, Hamish MacLeod, Jenn Ross and Christine Sinclair out of the University of Edinburgh.  The course starts January 28th, runs 5 weeks, and Jeremy tweeted last week that over 32,000 have enrolled so far.  I know that blogging will be a part of the course, and I will be using this blog to chronicle my learning for the course.

I enrolled in mid-December, and a small but very engaged subset of the 32K has already been active in Twitter, Facebook, and a host of other sites.  Sandra Sinfield blogged about this pre-course engagement…and listed the following links (the majority of which have been developed by fellow students, not Coursera or the instructors):

Quoting from Sandra -here are quick links:

Space to think & try some new ideas:
•           Keep a wish list with pictures on Pinterest
•          Join our QuadBlog experiment
•          Study Group for the course
•          Feel overwhelmed? Vent here
We can add ourselves to the
•           Google Map
•           Blog list and:
•           Read the rules
•           edcmooc course page
•           course members who themselves are tutors: Group page
Student room:
•         Facebook group
•         Twitter people on the course           (Course hashtag #edcmooc)
Tech Tools:
•           Tech tools for education
•           What’s your recipe?
Journals, articles and videos all related to this course, and to the wider field of MOOC’s and technology:
The library is online at Diigo; we can add ourselves to the group. Tag any link with edcmooc so it’s easier for us to search: Diigo
First question posted in our ‘classroom’:
Q: What is your definition of “Digital Culture” ?

Wow!  Thanks, Sandra, for creating this resource list!

Sandra mentioned that she was already feeling overwhelmed, and I understand that feeling.  My minimal connections over the holiday break resulted in numerous emails alerting me to FB Group postings and tweets … and this with approximately 150 of us diving in to the social media.  I am wondering if 32,000 (or even a percentage of 32K) will bring my system to its knees!  Obviously, I will be refining my filters and alert settings, but I have a feeling it will be continuous or nothing…this is going to be interesting to try and throttle.  And with the numbers in my Coursera course, will I miss any of the social media from my VCU students in GRAD 602?  I want to play in the sandbox and see what happens…but it will be an interesting spring to say the least!

If any of you who have taken a similar journey have tips and tricks for success, please comment to this post and share them!


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Wrapping Up Summer Course

It has been my privilege to teach the eight-week summer course, ADLT 640 – The Theory and Practice of eLearning – for the VCU School of Education Adult Learning program.  I blogged in late June and early July about teaching this course. Tonight, we wrap up the course with our final session.  Sonja’s comment in her blog this week sums up how several expressed themselves this past week:

When I decided to “check out” ADLT 640 and see what all “the fuss” was about behind “e-learning”, I had no idea how this eight-week summer course, would change and expand my perceptions of my learning environment from a four by four box into world without limits or borders.

I used a rather non-traditional hybrid approach to teaching this course.  We met face-to-face twice a week for the first two weeks, then met online for four weeks, and finally remet face-to-face for the final two weeks.  This meant that we met half of the time face-to-face and half online…though I suspect that my students will say they spent more than half of their time online.  The first two weeks were spent on the theory part of the course, and the month online was focused on the practice part.

Last week, I had the students complete a self-assessment of their mastery of the learning objectives of the course, on a scale of 1 (not confident) to 5 (very confident).  Of twenty-one learning objectives, sixteen averaged above 4 and the remaining five averaged between 3 and 4.  I believe that this confidence flows from the experience they had online.

You can check out the blog posts from the students at our Netvibes portal.  I collected all of their final posts to create this Wordle:

final blog post wordle

It is no accident that “learning” was the top word, but what struck me was how their mental model of learning had appeared to evolve.  One student mentioned in class Tuesday night her “Ah ha” moment of realizing that mobile learning had less to do with devices than it did the mobility of the learner.  In related ways, eLearning has come to mean less the tools and environment by which people connect so much as the connections themselves. Joanne noted in her blog:

Surely at this point in my life I had all the skills I needed in order to learn.  What I wasn’t taking into account, however, was that when you learn as a team, you get more context and meaning behind the terms and ideas.  You start to understand them from a number of perspectives, and that can increase the likelihood that you’ll retain that information and be able to apply it in more ways than just the situations you are familiar with yourself.

Sonja said:

 For me, e-learning is not just about participating in “online” classes.  It is how the user or participant uses not only the internet and the digital tools around them, but how connected the learner allows themselves to be to that information outside the typical or traditional education environment.

And Lindsey had a great observation:

What if the educational shift was focused on universities connecting to one another instead of competing as separate entities? Then, learning and progressing could be a shared endeavor rather than some being front-runners and others left behind. I’m not talking about one school endorsing the other like edx for open courseware. I’m talking about schools offering elearning classes with a more global approach. Each school would still continue to have its relative distinctions, but would collaboratively build more of a connected, global, ecommunity of academia.

One aspect of the class that the students all seemed to like was the collaborative building of a class library.  Each week, each student added a summary and citation to a simple Google Form, that collected their work together.  I bookmarked all of their articles in Diigo.

The 2-week on campus, 4-weeks online, 2-weeks on campus format worked well.  As Joanne noted:

Being back in class this past week solidified my (current) preference for a hybrid construction for classes.  Our four-week online module proved to me how much I can learn in an online environment and how much collaboration can exist without being face-to-face.  However, nothing in those four weeks came close to the rush I felt after two and a half hours of discussion in class on Tuesday and Thursday night.

These eight weeks have flown by, and I will be a little sad to see this class close out tonight.  It has been a positive experience for me as well, and I better understand now why the Department of Education‘s 2010 meta-analysis of eLearning suggested that a blended approach could achieve higher learning outcomes than either a purely online or purely on-campus class.  I think that the 2-4-2 approach I took worked well.  If I was going to go hybrid with a weekly class and weekly online, I suspect my design would be more of a flipped class.  The extended online segment I chose for this class really forced both myself and my students to grapple with the challenges and find the affordances that the online environment can provide.

And not to lose sight, my final two Prezi’s:

Session 6: Emerging Trends

Session 7: mLearning

ADLT640_Session7 on Prezi

My thanks again to some great students! You made this course a very positive experience for me!

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